Returning Home

 You’re thinking, “That doesn’t make sense. They’re happy to have him home. That’s all that matters to them. He’s safe and alive.”     

True. That’s their first reaction. It lasts until the welcome home hug and the long breathless embrace. It’s afterward, when you each pull back and look into the other’s eyes. That’s when you lose each other.     

Let’s say you’re his Dad. When this vet left for war, he was still your boy, full of fun and pranks. Life was an open invitation to adventure. Anything was possible. That’s the image locked in your mind since he left. Your response now to this vet is to that image.     

But that’s not the image before you. His eyes tell you how much he has changed. Their twinkle is gone. His gaze is unwavering, but deep beneath its open appraisal dwells hurt, pain and confusion, and a longing for returned innocence.       

After months at war, your boy has grown older than you. He’s lived with death chasing him, usually on the roadside or on the path of a local village. How many improvised explosive devices have killed his buddies? Those buddies became closer to him than you, his Dad.      

He’s happy to see you, but his heart yearns for those left behind, for the adrenalin rush, for the heart-pounding fear, for the ecstasy of mutual relief when they beat death together one more time. Even what he smells has changed. Every new scent is tainted with his memory of reeking cordite, burnt flesh, gas fumes, and the stench of spewed guts.     

For that moment, he’s vulnerable. He lets you see into him, and then the impact of seeing you again strikes him. He sees how you’ve changed, and aged, worrying about him. He mentally pulls a mask over his need for comfort to protect you from all that he has seen and what he has become. To defend and protect. Who better than the ones he loves?     

He shakes off the sudden sense of discomfort and uncertainty, and says to himself, “I’m home. Everything will be fine.”     

And the estranged tap dancing around each other begins.   

Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, caregivers, depression, emotional trauma, estrangement from family, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 7 Comments


I just received this letter from Trixie Foster in the United Kingdom.
08 Dec 2015 – An acceptable risk? The use of Lariam for military personnel – oral evidence | PDF version (318 KB) Opens in a new windowHC 567 | Published 11 Jan 2016Evidence given by Dr Ashley Croft, Lieutenant Colonel (Retired) A G Marriott MBE, Trixie Foster, Dr Remington Nevin

Thank you, Trixie, and Dr. Nevin, for your dedicated advocacy on behalf of all veterans who have suffered adverse effects because of receiving the anti-malaria drug, mefloquine or Lariam. BONNIE

Dear Bonnie
Thought you may like to see this.  I was one of the witnesses for the Inquiry on 8th December and Remington Nevin flew over for the day to give evidence.  On 12 January they questioned the Surgeon General, his advisers and the Minister of Defence Personnel & Veterans.  We got an apology for all those who were given Lariam without an individual risk assessment.
Here are the links – The British Broadcasting Service News programme did quarter of an hour on it last Tueasday so on the link click on 12 Jan Tuesday news.  I have attached the transcript in case you do not wish to watch it on the Defence Select Committee website.  There are also many submissions that we wrote to get the Inquiry.  I do hope this will help all the Canadian Veterans.  You can also see Remington Nevin’s Twitter which is on top of things too.  Australian Veterans are also asking for an Inquiry.
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International Co-operation Exposing Disabling Toxic Effects of Anti-Malarial Mefloquine (Lariam) Drug

Missing 2004 IL10-2004-007 Recovered — Details Long-Term Health Effects from Malarial Mefloquine Drug — Also Roche Report from Australia Lists Disabling Toxic Effects. 

Ellen Duncan, wife of Maj. General Alastar Duncan in Britain, has sent me these documents but I don’t know how to attach them to this blog. Mrs. Duncan has started her own blog describing how she and her husband are fighting to have the general’s blast injury to his brain and mefloquine toxicity recognized, but British Health Officials continue to label his condition as dementia despite rising evidence. I recommend that you all read her blog that follows. BONNIE


A soldier’s struggle with neuro-toxic brain injury.

From ROCHE REPORT, AUSTRALIA — I‘m sorry but the table formatting was lost in copying this excerpt. If you email me at I will attach both documents for you to read. Bonnie

Mefloquine is an odourless, bitter-tasting, white crystalline powder. It is soluble in methanol and ethanol but practically insoluble in water. A 1% aqueous suspension has a pH of 5.6.
LARIAM tablets are cylindrical biplanar, white to off-white, cross-scored with break bars on both faces and marked with “RO”, “C”, “HE” and an imprinted hexagon in the quadrants of one face. They contain 250 mg mefloquine in the form of mefloquine hydrochloride (274.09 mg). LARIAM tablets also contain the following excipients: poloxamer 3800, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, maize starch, crospovidone, ammonium calcium alginate, talc and magnesium stearate.
LARIAM (mefloquine) is an antimalarial belonging to the quinoline-methanol group of medicines and is structurally related to quinine.

Table 2 Adverse Events Attributed to the Study Drug# Lariam (n = 483)
atovaquone-proguanil (n = 493)
Any adverse event
Any neuropsychiatric event
Strange or vivid dreams
Dizziness or vertigo
Visual difficulties
Any gastrointestinal event
(19. 5)
Abdominal pain
Mouth ulcers
#Mean duration of treatment ± SD was 28 ± 8 days for atovaquone-proguanil and 53 ± 16 days for Lariam.

Post –Marketing
In the table below, an overview of adverse reactions is presented, based on post marketing data.
Adverse reactions are listed according to MedDRA system organ class and frequency category. Frequency categories are defined using the following convention:
very common (>1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from available data).
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Not known
Agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Not known
Decreased appetite
Psychiatric disorders
Very common
Abnormal dreams, insomnia
Anxiety, depression
Agitation, restlessness, mood swings, panic attacks, confusional state, hallucinations, aggression, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorder including delusional disorder, depersonalisation and mania, paranoia, suicidal ideation
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness, headache
Balance disorder, somnolence, syncope, convulsions, memory impairment, peripheral sensory neuropathy and peripheral motor neuropathy (including
Lariam PI 141107 13
Due to the long half-life of LARIAM, adverse reactions to LARIAM may occur or persist up to several weeks after the last dose. In a small number of patients it has been reported that dizziness or vertigo and loss of balance may continue for months after discontinuation of the medicine. There have been rare reports of suicidal ideations. No relationship to drug administration has been established.
Malaria Treatment
Adults and children of more than 45 kg bodyweight:
(i) Non-immune patients recently arrived from endemic areas.
The recommended total dosage of LARIAM, 1250 mg according to bodyweight, should be administered as follows:
A loading dose of 3 tablets (750 mg), followed 6 to 8 hours later by 2 tablets (500 mg).
Paraesthesia, tremor and ataxia), encephalopathy
Eye disorders
Visual impairment
Not known
Vision blurred, cataract, retinal disorders and optic neuropathy which may occur with latency during or after treatment
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Vestibular disorders (long term) including tinnitus and hearing impaired
Cardiac disorders
Not known
Chest pain, Tachycardia, palpitation, bradycardia, irregular heart rate, extrasystoles, other transient conduction disorder, AV block
Vascular disorders
Not known
Cardiovascular disorders (hypotension, hypertension, flushing)
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Not known
Dyspnoea, pneumonitis of possible allergic etiology
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Not known
Hepatobiliary disorders
Not known
Drug-related hepatic disorders from asymptomatic transient transaminase increase to hepatic failure
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Not known
Rash, erythema, urticaria, alopecia, hyperhidrosis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Not known
Muscular weakness, muscle spasms, myalgia, arthralgia
General disorders and administration site disorders
Not known
Oedema, asthenia, malaise, fatigue, chills, pyrexia, hyperhidrosis
Lariam PI 141107 14
ii) Semi-immune patients
For patients in malaria endemic areas, a smaller total dosage of LARIAM – 750 to 1,000 mg – is sufficient since they have usually developed partial immunity. Adults weighing 60 kg receive an initial dose of 3 tablets, followed by 1 tablet 6 to 8 hours later.
If a full treatment course has been administered without clinical cure, alternative treatments should be given. Similarly if previous prophylaxis with LARIAM has failed, LARIAM should not be used for curative treatment.
Malaria Prophylaxis
Prophylaxis of malaria with LARIAM should be initiated 1 week before arrival in a malarious area.
The following dosage schedule is given as a guide:
LARIAM can be used for up to 3 months in the prophylaxis of malaria.
Course of Prophylaxis
Adults and children of more than 45kg bodyweight
1 tablet
Stated dose to be given once weekly, always on the same day. First dose one week before departure. Further doses at weekly intervals during travel in malarious areas and for 2 weeks after leaving the area.
The tablets should be swallowed whole with plenty of liquid.
LARIAM can be given for severe acute malaria after an initial course of intravenous quinine lasting at least 2 – 3 days. Interactions leading to adverse events can largely be prevented by allowing an interval of at least 12 hours after the last dose of quinine.
In cases of overdosage with LARIAM, the symptoms mentioned under ADVERSE EFFECTS may be more pronounced.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following LARIAM overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Monitor cardiac function (if possible by ECG) and neuropsychiatric status for at least 24 hours. Provide symptomatic and intensive supportive treatment as required, particularly for cardiovascular disturbances.
Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 for advice on management of overdosage.
Lariam PI 141107 15
Packs of 8 tablets (cross-scored) each containing 250 mg mefloquine.
Store below 30 °C. Store in original container. Protect from moisture.
Disposal of Medicines
The release of medicines into the environment should be minimised. Medicines should not be disposed of via wastewater and disposal through household waste should be avoided. Unused or expired medicine should be returned to a pharmacy for disposal.
Roche Products Pty Ltd
ABN 70 000 132 865
4-10 Inman Road
Dee Why NSW 2099
Customer enquiries: 1-800-233-950
Schedule 4 – Prescription Only Medicine
27 January 1993
12 November 2014

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Mefloquine is already the Military’s “Hidden Epidemic” — new report reveals stunning facts

As more and more people are growing alarmed, we’re also seeing increasing advocacy for those suffering long-term from the toxic effects of mefloquine or Lariam as the preferred anti-malaria drug used by our military for more than 25 years. What a relief! Many of us have felt like lone voices in a desert for more than 20 of those years. The following report comes from testimony submitted to the Joint Veterans’ Affairs Committee Hearing on Veteran Service Organizations’ Legislative Priorities for the House and Senate Committees on Veterans Affairs in the U.S. by The Association of the United States Navy. At some point, our Canadian Military and Health Canada have to cave under such growing data and acknowledge what our veterans have suffered and endured since first introduced to this anti-malaria preventative treatment in Somalia and every overseas assignment since in areas where malaria occurs. 

If Canadian Veterans Affairs case workers still deny your suffering and need for treatment as well as disability compensation, hand them this excerpt from the AUSN testimony. BONNIE


Mefloquine Exposure

“AUSN is concerned about the lasting effects on Veterans’ health from exposure to the controversial antimalarial drug mefloquine, which has been linked to a growing list of troubling psychiatric and neurological disorders. In Senate testimony in 2012, a former U.S. Army public health physician and epidemiologist [This was Dr. Remington Nevin.] cautioned that mefloquine could become the Agent Orange of this generation. In response to these concerns, AUSN and other organizations have been calling on the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to do more to educate Veterans to the dangers of mefloquine, to sponsor long-overdue research into the drug’s toxicity and to prepare its healthcare providers and disability evaluators to properly evaluate claims of long-term harm arising from Veterans’ exposure to the drug. Although there is a VA website,, this issue needs further study and analysis at the VA in order to evaluate such claims.

“Previously sold in the U.S. under the trade name Lariam®, mefloquine was first synthesized in 1969 by scientists affiliated with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). Following a 20 year development effort, which culminated in the drug’s licensing in 1989 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), mefloquine quickly became the military’s “drug of choice” for the prevention of malaria, in part because its weekly dosing schedule simplified command-directed administration. Over the next quarter century, many hundreds of thousands of servicemembers were directed to take the drug, from operations in Somalia in the 1990s, to operations in Africa and Afghanistan as late as this year.

“Since then, reports of mefloquine’s sometimes horrific side effects have become commonplace among Veterans, and reliable stories of Veterans suffering often debilitating injuries from the drug have been regularly featured in the media. Since 1989, even the drug manufacturer has warned that during use, if signs of unexplained anxiety, depression, restlessness or confusion are noticed, these could be considered an early warning sign of a more serious event from the drug. Yet, what this more serious event was has only became clear in July 2013, when the FDA added to the drug’s label a boxed warning, advising that mefloquine could cause serious psychiatric effects, including anxiety, paranoia, depression and hallucinations that could last years after use, and neurological effects including ringing of the ears, loss of balance and vertigo that could be permanent in some cases. This black box drug label also warns of a risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide.

“Following the FDA’s boxed warning in the summer of 2013, Dr. Jonathan Woodson, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, emphasized that mefloquine should only be used as a drug 7 of last resort to prevent malaria and called attention to data showing military prescriptions had fallen over 90% in previous years as the drug’s dangers became better known. To prevent malaria, the military now recommends the safer daily drugs Malarone® or doxycycline, the latter of which, ironically, was the military’s drug of choice over a quarter century ago before mefloquine was first introduced. AUSN notes that now that these safer daily drugs are once again used in place of mefloquine, malaria cases in the Department of Defense (DOD) are at their lowest level in a decade. Given that the safety and effectiveness of these daily drugs appears to be far superior to mefloquine, AUSN questions why mefloquine was ever used at all given its dangerous side effect profile, particularly over the past decade, during which time two safer daily alternatives have been available. For this reason, AUSN also supports legislation to remove mefloquine from the approved DOD formulary for non-emergency use and to fund the purchase of safer, and consequently more expensive, alternative anti-malarial drugs throughout the military medical services. Although curtailing new prescriptions of mefloquine is a necessary first step, this alone will do nothing to address the long-term harm that has already been suffered by prior generations of Veterans exposed to the drug. Scientists now recognize that mefloquine is neurotoxic and can cause permanent brain injury, resulting in a range of lasting psychiatric and neurological symptoms. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), these symptoms may even confound, or complicate, the diagnosis and management of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), which recently banned mefloquine altogether, has even emphasized that some of the symptoms of mefloquine toxicity could be mistaken for malingering, or conversion, somatoform or personality disorders.

“As stated before, for Veterans experiencing these symptoms, information available to those who were possibility exposed to mefloquine from the VA remains inadequate. VA websites still feature incorrect information on the drug’s side effects, fail to highlight the seriousness of FDA’s boxed warning and provide few resources directed specifically to help Veterans better understand their symptoms and seek appropriate care. VA must do more to reach out to affected Veterans with improved and more detailed and frank information. AUSN also calls upon the VA to sponsor long-overdue research to better understand the drug’s long-term effects and the burden of its toxicity among Veterans. VA should formalize the limited but ground-breaking clinical research into mefloquine toxicity, already being conducted by the War-Related Illness and Injury Study Center, and increase funding for extramural clinical and epidemiological research at civilian academic centers.

“More must also be done to educate VA clinicians and disability evaluators to the effects of the drug. As early as 2004, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) had issued an information letter (IL10-2004-007) to its clinicians warning of the possibility of long-term effects from mefloquine, but this letter was allowed to lapse and is now unavailable. AUSN calls on the VA to update this letter to reflect the latest research on mefloquine’s harmful effects, to disseminate its contents to its providers and to supplement this effort with conferences, lectures and continuing medical education (CME) as appropriate. With the FDA’s acknowledgement of the possibility of lasting side effects from the drug, the VA must also update its disability evaluation processes to recognize that certain long-term psychiatric and neurological effects may be the result of mefloquine exposure. As a 2012 memorandum by Dr. Woodson acknowledged, many military servicemembers were dispensed mefloquine without proper medical, the VA must develop procedures to adjudicate such claims, even in the absence of proof of prescribing.

“AUSN is concerned at the possibility of a hidden epidemic from mefloquine toxicity. The steps outlined above will help in stemming this epidemic and aid in assisting affected Veterans, before mefloquine becomes our military’s next Agent Orange.”

Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Peacekeepers, caregivers, depression, emotional trauma, estrangement from family, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs, VRAB | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Why do we need to vote?

It is with special privilege that I repost a blog under A VETERAN’S VOICE by Wolf William Solkin found on Canadian Veterans’ Advocacy web site.

Wolf is a World War II veteran, currently residing at St. Ann’s hospital in Montréal. He is encouraging Canadians to vote and has volunteered to write blogs for the Canadian Veterans Advocacy.

I will be reposting his blog periodically throughout the lead up to the October elections. BONNIE

FROM A VETERAN’S VOICE BLOG on Canadian Veterans Advocacy

by Wolf William Solkin


It has indeed been the iconic Biblical “Threescore years and ten” since our generation of WW II Veterans finally forced the foes of our freedoms , the Nazis and the Fascists, to abandon their destructive and dastardly efforts to rule over us by dictatorship defeating democracy. At that time we were all so truly proud and happy that autocratic rule over most of the world was replaced by the democratic process, whereby we were primarily granted the (“God-given”?)) right to VOTE,  to select and/or reject our nation’s leaders. There were, of course, many other precious rights and freedoms that we gained, but they could not have surfaced, let alone thrived, without our first having the cornerstone upon which they could be built…free and fair elections, whereby we could express our desires and demands for our preferred way of life by (s)electing those legislators whom we felt would best represent our best interests. However, and sad to say, as the years came and went, so too did our enthusiasm and interest for engaging ourselves and concerning ourselves with governing ourselves, wane and decrease to the point of diminishing (electoral) returns. To quote from a recent article written by Pete McMartin  of the ‘Vancouver Sun’, …”In all,the adjusted turnout for the 2011 federal election was 58.5 per cent, second lowest in the country’s history…The largest voter turnouts came in the decades after the Second World War.. Perhaps the visceral connection between sacrifice and the democratic process was more evident to voters…(and Veterans)…then, because it was literally paid for in blood…”. Right on ! There is no question that many of us, have slowed down, drowsed off and grown fat…OK, no need to be ashamed of our weight. But there is a great need to be deeply ashamed of not carrying our weight, when it comes down to our real responsibility to act as responsible citizens, in determining the continuing way of life for that very same country of ours for which we few fought so fiercely to keep our freedoms flourishing. “Our” war of yore may be long over, but there are still battles to be fought for our country within our country…..not with bullets, but with ballots ! Both as Veterans and as part of the total  Canadian citizenry, we are faced with myriad problems which affect us today, and will affect our children and grandchildren tomorrow and the day(s) .following. Not only what will become of my vanishing vintage of Vets, but also, and equally if not more important,  the current and future treatment of our “younger” brothers -in-arms, who fought just as hard and bled just as much, trying to keep the peace in perilous places like Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda,Haiti,  the Middle East and many others, plus “the pick of the litter” being Afghanistan. Enough said !! And that is by no means all that should concern us as Veterans. What about such things as the economy , higher taxes, cost of living increases, unemployment and so on down the very long line of important matters affecting not only you, but your family, your neighbours, your community and, for that matter, your/our  whole darn country ? Or do you just not care anymore, and have become indifferent to what’s happening in and to the world outside your own little comfort zone ? “So what?”, you say….I’ll tell you ” what” !   We Canadians have a national election coming up this 19th of October, and while I will never presume to tell anyone whom to vote for, I do dare to demand that we all get off our bony butts to participate in our cherished democratic process. Help to elect the representative(s) whom, after due diligence, you decide will best act on your/our personal and collective behalf, as Veterans of all ages and all military operations. Check him/her out very carefully, satisfy yourself that your choice will  not just talk the talk, but actually walk the walk, and is prepared to do so in your old service boots ! Your duty as a Canadian /Veteran is far from over. You fought for and preserved  a democratic  way of life; now is the time for you to benefit from your victory  by voting for those candidates who will most truly and consistently recognize, respect and reinforce the rights of all true Veterans all across Canada. Voting is not simply a right or a privilege. I look upon voting as an obligation that we Veterans should/must fulfil at all costs, and I sometimes even consider the possible advantages of enforceable mandatory voting laws, such as now exist in some forward-looking countries. Whatever your view, let your views be known to the people who are even now submitting their resumes and applying to you and me for the pretty cushy yet highly critical job of performing as OUR public servants and doing OUR bidding for the forthcoming  years. So do yourself, your family, your friends and your fellow-Vets a forever favour, by going out to VOTE,  and getting out the VOTE !!!! And always remember to….                                          …LEAVE NO VET BEHIND !


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Communities for Veterans cross-country ride arrives in Ontario on our National Peacekeeping Day

Paul Nichols who saddled up to bring attention to veterans' issues across Canada.

Former soldier, Paul Nichols, saddled up to bring attention to veterans’ issues across Canada.

The 29th Lieutenant Governor of Canada, the Hon. Elizabeth Dowdeswell, welcomed Canadian veteran Paul Nichols at the Aurora branch of the Royal Canadian Legion, today–Aug. 9, 2015–in this special National Peacekeeping Day event. Paul is making a cross-country ride on horseback to draw attention to the inadequate care of our veterans.

With his wife and daughter by his side, he welcomes other veterans to join him and his family on their coast-to-coast

The Hon. Elizabeth Dowesdell, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, talks to veteran Paul Nichols about the stories he has gathered from other veterans across Canada and the initiatives she hopes to sponsor for Ontario's veterans.

The Hon. Elizabeth Dowesdell, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, talks to veteran Paul Nichols about the stories he has gathered from other veterans across Canada and the initiatives she hopes to sponsor for Ontario’s veterans.

ride to educate the public as well as to provide all veterans with an opportunity to share their experiences trying to re-adjust to home life. By helping everyone bridge the gap in recognizing the ever increasing physical and mental health needs of veterans–from inter-provincial governments to the federal government, to the public in general and to other veterans feeling unheard and unappreciated–this ride that began in Victoria, B.C., in April to reach the East Coast in November is recorded on the “Communities for Veterans” web site.

Bonnie Toews with Paul Nichols inside the Aurora Legion Hall.

Bonnie Toews with Paul Nichols inside the Aurora Legion Hall. Paul’s wife, who is also riding across Canada on horseback with him, stands just behind him.

The Aurora branch of the Royal Canadian Legion welcomed the riders on this National Peacekeeping Day to help them spread their message and to draw the public together to show them its thanks for their service to Canada.

Ontario’s Hon. Lieutenant Governor thanked all veterans for their service in her personal recognition of Paul Nichols’ crusade to make sure no veteran is ever forgotten or unappreciated again.

On Homecoming Vets we would also like to thank you, Paul and your family, for going the extra distance to bring public attention to what our service people endure on duty for Canada.

To learn more about the cross-Canada ride or to donate funds toward helping existing veteran-support groups, visit, send an email  to or call 250-668-3338.

SEE ALSO: Former soldier aims to change how society views veterans with cross-Canada ride
Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Peacekeepers, caregivers, depression, emotional trauma, estrangement from family, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs, VRAB | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment


I received an email yesterday from a veteran advocate who continues to fight the Canadian government’s position on the adverse effects of the anti-malaria drug mefloquine or Lariam as a preventative treatment for the military since the early 1990s. I find the government’s response insulting to our intelligence and lacking all human compassion. I quote in part its position: “The Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) take the health and well-being of CAF members very seriously. Malaria is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease to which our troops can beexposed in the performance of their duties during deployment or travel in theregions of the world where malaria is present. The use of medication to prevent malaria is a critical part of the protection we provide our troops. The current approach in the CAF to protect our personnel against malaria does include mefloquine as one of the medications that we recommend and use.

“Mefloquine is a Health Canada approved drug and continues to be an option for malaria prophylaxis as recommended by the Public Health Agency of Canada and by most public health and travel medicine authorities around the world. Mefloquine has advantages over other drugs. It is highly effective at preventing malaria infection and the once per week dosing makes it easier for personnel to remember to take it compared to other drugs which must be taken every day. Once a week dosing improves compliance and thus provides better protection against malaria. It is acknowledged that, like any other medication, mefloquine has the potential to cause adverse effects, with the rare and most worrisome of these being serious neuro-psychiatric events. Despite mefloquine’s reputation, the large majority of individuals who take mefloquine do so with no significant side effects.” Update on Canadian Armed Forces and Prescription Drugs, Dec. 24, 2014, Rick Dykstra, Member of Parliament for St. Catharines

Here’s the rub: “It is acknowledged that, like any other medication, mefloquine has the potential to cause adverse effects, with the rare and most worrisome of these being serious neuro-psychiatric events. Despite mefloquine’s reputation, the large MAJORITY of individuals who take mefloquine do so with no significant side effects.”

This issue is not a high school debate where each point is seen as a reasonable hypothesis nor is it an acceptable justification. We are talking about the LIVES of human beings being so detrimentally affected they can no longer function, of human beings who suffer every day from the continuing adverse effects mefloqouine causes and whose symptoms, as we are learning, grow worse as they age. To ignore the agony of these FEW that we the people in the name of our government deny is not only irresponsible, it verges on inhumane criminal treatment. It is no different than a hit-and-run driver who leaves the scene of an accident. We, the government of the people, for the people and by the people, are responsible for ALL the people we represent, not just SOME of the people SOME of the time nor when it suits us.

Yes, malaria is a dreadful disease. Yes, more troops were lost in WWII to malaria than to actual combat fatalities. Yes, we have to protect ourselves against malaria when we travel to places where it prevails. Yes, it is good the Canadian military now give service members a choice in which anti-malarial they take after being informed of all the possibilities.

BUT, this does not justify our government’s ignoring those casualties of the mefloquine drug over the years since it was first issued as a mandatory prophylaxis for those serving in our military. These victims need recognition, and they need help NOW. Our government needs to return to the scene of the crime and take responsibility for the injury it has caused the FEW for an extended number of years.

Bonnie Toews, Canadian citizen and a voter

Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Peacekeepers, caregivers, CNN News, depression, emotional trauma, estrangement from family, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, Steven Spielberg, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs, VRAB | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Dr. Remington Nevin has chapter on Mefloquine and PTSD published

Dr. nevin image

We now have expert confirmation of the horrors so many are suffering from the after effects of the anti-malaria drug, mefloquine or Lariam. If you go to Dr. Nevin’s web site, you can download the chapter in pdf format. and

Thank you Dr. Nevin for your persistent investigation into the effects of this drug on our military and innocent travellers. I was appalled to learn that Tanzania recommends mefloquine (Lariam) to tourists and downplays the possible severe side effects.

Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Peacekeepers, caregivers, CNN News, depression, emotional trauma, estrangement from family, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, Steven Spielberg, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs, VRAB | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

2014 in review

The stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 21,000 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 8 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

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Gov’t.’s refusal to recognize mefloquine drug affecting veterans and active troops amounts to criminal negligence

Shame on Canada! Shame on Health Canada! Shame on the Canadian Armed Forces! Shame on our government’s refusal to recognize the mounting evidence of the “military’s suicide pill” — the anti-malaria drug mefloquine or Lariam, as it is also called.

I am reposting recent reports that confirm how dangerous this drug is. Since we now have boots on the ground in Iraq, their lives and sanity are at risk as this drug is still issued as Canada’s preferred anti-malaria preventive treatment. There are other much safer and effective drugs, but they do cost more, particularly malarone used in both the treatment and prevention of malaria.

The callousness of our government in the treatment of our finest and best trained soldiers staggers the mind and heart of every caring Canadian. It’s time to make this government accountable for its deliberate and criminal neglect in safeguarding those who volunteer to sacrifice their lives for our country. Our military’s willingness to be sacrificed is not an invitation for the Canadian government to exploit them or to treat them as expendable fodder.

Why is mefloquine so dangerous?

1. “Mefloquine is neurotoxic and can cause lasting injury to the brainstem and emotional centers in the recipient’s limbic system.”

2. “Mefloquine can even occasionally cause a true dissociative psychosis. In a grip of such a terrifying psychosis, victims have jumped from buildings, or shot or stabbed themselves in grisly ways reminiscent of scenes from M. Night Shyamalan’s film, The Happening.”

3. “Mefloquine, a neurotoxic drug that can cause permanent brain injury, is contributing to our unprecedented epidemic of mental illness and suicide” among our military and veterans.

It’s all here in this latest collection of three reports. BONNIE


Mefloquine (brand names: Lariam, Mephaquin or Mefliam) is an orally administered medication used in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Rare but serious neuropsychiatric problems have been associated with its use. Mefloquine was developed in the 1970s at the United States Department of Defense’s Walter Reed Army Institute of Research as a synthetic analogue of quinine. The brand name drug, Lariam, is manufactured by the Swiss company Hoffmann–La Roche. In August 2009, Roche stopped marketing Lariam in the United States. Generic mefloquine from other manufacturers is still widely available. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system. There is widespread belief that mefloquine can have negative psychological effects on the user and that troops returning from deployments where mefloquine was used may be misdiagnosed as having PTSD rather than suffering from the effects of mefloquine. The three following articles from the US, Canada and the UK explore and document various aspects of the use of mefloquine.

Mefloquine: The Military’s Suicide Pill
US Army Major (Ret’d) Remington Nevin, MD

Featured image

Dr. Remington Nevin and the CBC’s Nancy Wood when she interviewed the former U.S. Army medical officer two years ago.

In late July, 2013, the FDA issued a powerful black box safety warning for a drug that has been taken by hundreds of thousands of troops to prevent malaria. The drug is called mefloquine, and it was previously sold in the U.S. by F. Hoffman-La Roche under the trade name Lariam. Since being developed by the U.S. military over four decades ago, mefloquine has been widely used by troops on deployments in Africa, Iraq and Afghanistan. We now recognize, decades too late, that mefloquine is neurotoxic and can
cause lasting injury to the brainstem and emotional centers in the limbic system. As a result of its toxic effects, the drug is quickly becoming the “Agent Orange” of this generation, linked to a growing list of lasting neurological and psychiatric problems including suicide.

The public had its first glimpse of the mefloquine suicide problem over a decade ago in 2002, when a cluster of murder-suicides occurred among Ft. Bragg soldiers returning home from deployment. All three soldiers had been taking mefloquine, yet an official Army investigation later concluded mefloquine was “unlikely to be the cause of this clustering.” The Army Surgeon General even testified to Congress there was “absolutely no statistical correlation between Lariam use and those murder suicides.”

The next year, in 2003, a spike in suicides in the early months of the Iraq war was linked in media reports to widespread use of mefloquine; in response, the U.S. Army promised a study “to dispel Lariam suicide myths.”

Yet, when mefloquine use was halted in Iraq in 2004, the active duty Army suicide rate fell precipitously. Earlier this year, I analyzed data from an investigation of suicides in the Irish military conducted by the Irish network RTÉ. In my analysis, troops prescribed mefloquine had a 3- to 5-fold increase in their risk of suicide in the years following deployment, as compared to similar troops deployed but not prescribed mefloquine. The conclusions from this analysis seemed clear: mefloquine was a strong risk factor for suicide. Drug regulators seemed to agree: soon after broadcast, Roche updated the Irish Lariam product information, warning the drug could cause suicide, suicidal thoughts and self-endangering behavior. Most importantly, Roche eliminated previous language that claimed that “no
relationship to drug administration has been confirmed.”

Yet, these observations only confirm what should have been apparent all along. Mental illness, including depression, anxiety, and psychosis, are known to be strong risk factors for suicide. And since 1989, when mefloquine was first marketed in the U.S., the product label has clearly warned that the drug could cause symptoms of mental illness, including anxiety and depression, and hallucinations and other psychotic manifestations. Since mefloquine increases the risk of mental illness, and mental illness increases the risk of suicide, it follows logically that mefloquine increases the risk of suicide.

We now recognize that mefloquine can even occasionally cause a true dissociative psychosis. In a grip of such a terrifying psychosis, victims have jumped from buildings, or shot or stabbed themselves in grisly ways reminiscent of scenes from M. Night Shyamalan’s film, The Happening. Those who have survived mefloquine’s psychotic effects describe experiencing morbid fascination with death, eerie dreamlike out-of-body states, and often uncontrollable compulsions and impulsivity towards acts of violence and self-harm.

As frightening as its intoxicating effects can be, mefloquine’s dangers may not go away even when the drug is discontinued. Today’s mefloquine product information warns of “serious, long-lasting mental illness” and psychiatric symptoms that can “continue for months or years after mefloquine has been stopped.”

Unfortunately, until recently, prominent authorities denied this was even possible. Clear the drug from your system, they insisted, and behavior would return to normal. As a result, troops home from a mefloquine deployment, suffering from persistent
dizziness or memory problems, insomnia, vivid nightmares, irritability and other changes in mood and personality caused by the drug have struggled to make sense of their lasting symptoms. Some of these veterans have even been diagnosed with PTSD or TBI.

But, some veterans, including those without traumatic exposures or who had never suffered a concussion, in whom these lasting symptoms couldn’t be easily explained, were accused of malingering or of having a “personality disorder”. In some cases, these troops were discharged without medical benefits and left to fend for themselves. It should not be surprising to learn that some of these mefloquine veterans, mentally injured, confused, and cast out by the military that unwittingly poisoned them, would later take their own lives in desperation.

In 2004, the military was strongly encouraged to conduct careful studies to evaluate the role of mefloquine in suicide, but these studies were never done. In light of the FDA’s black box warning, fulfilling this long overdue recommendation should now be a priority.

Yet, conducting such studies shouldn’t be necessary for today’s military leadership to acknowledge what follows logically from today’s science: Mefloquine, a neurotoxic drug that can cause permanent brain injury, is contributing to our unprecedented epidemic of mental illness and suicide. We must do more to reach out to veterans suffering in silence from the drug’s toxic effects, and ensure that those at risk of suicide understand how the drug has affected their mental health. As importantly, mefloquine veterans need to have affirmed by the military what they have suspected all along: that they are not crazy, and that it really is the drug that is the cause of their symptoms.

We owe it this generation of veterans to recognize the neurological and psychiatric effects of mefloquine neurotoxicity alongside PTSD and TBI for what they are: the third signature injury of modern war.

CBC News (Apr 11, 2012)
Malaria drug for Canadian troops called dangerous

Canada’s military apparently unconcerned over anti-malarial drug’s side effects

An anti-malarial drug that has been withdrawn from routine use by the U.S. military because of concerns about potentially dangerous side-effects continues to be prescribed to Canadian troops serving in malaria-prone regions. The drug, called mefloquine or Lariam, has been associated with psychiatric and physical side-effects that prompted the U.S. military to withdraw it from general use in 2009, but the Canadian Forces continue to prescribe it to soldiers.

Side-effects can range from anxiety, vivid nightmares and depression, to hallucinations and psychotic episodes, and the drug has also been blamed for suicides and long-term health problems.

Donald Hookey wonders if the mefloquine he was ordered to take in Afghanistan is linked to the rage and nightmares he still experiences. (CBC) Retired corporal Donald Hookey of Conception Bay South, N.L., has been home for six years from Afghanistan, but he remains haunted by his experience there. “I don’t think that I can honestly say that I’ve felt normal since I’ve been back.”

Until recently, Hookey blamed his rage and nightmares on post-traumatic stress disorder, but now he wonders if the anti-malarial drug mefloquine given to him by the army continues to exert long-lasting effects. “It really freaks me out … what I’ve been reading on the side-effects for the drugs.”

Mefloquine was developed by U.S. army researchers during the Vietnam War, but concerns about its side-effects eventually prompted a warning in a 2009 memo from the assistant secretary of defence: “Mefloquine may cause psychiatric symptoms … ranging from anxiety, paranoia and depression to hallucinations and psychotic behaviour … long after mefloquine has been stopped.”

Hoffman-Laroche manufactured mefloquine under the trade name Lariam, while a generic version called Apo-Mefloquine is produced in Canada by Apotex.

Risk of permanent effects cited U.S. army doctor Maj. Remington Nevin, who first gained experience with mefloquine during his deployment in Afghanistan in 2007, says that “there are a certain group of users in whom … these symptoms, the anxiety, the difficulty sleeping, the mood changes, these could be an indication, an early warning sign of a developing, more serious brain condition… a toxicity caused by rising levels of the drug.

“The worst-case scenario is that a soldier that suffers toxicity from mefloquine is left with permanent brain-stem injury.”

Personality changes in returning soldiers have been noted by their close family members. “It’s been very easy to attribute this personality change to some experience during deployment, perhaps some combat experience,” says Nevin, “but when
we see this in individuals that deployed but never had any traumatic exposures and who had an otherwise unremarkable time overseas, I think it becomes increasingly clear that it was the drug that’s responsible for these effects.”

The U.S. Centres for Disease Control recommended this year in its Yellow Book travel advisory that mefloquine not be considered the drug of choice for military deployments, given that “neuropsychiatric side-effects may confound the diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.”

Alternative treatments include doxycycline and atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone), which Nevin says are effective and more predictable.

The possibility that mefloquine may have been prescribed to U.S. Staff Sgt. Robert Bales, who has been charged with 17 counts of murder in the death of Afghan civilians, has been raised by retired army psychiatrist Elspeth Cameron Ritchie. The U.S. Defence Department has refused to confirm or deny that Bales took mefloquine, citing medical privacy.

Kevin Berry of Vancouver served in Afghanistan in 2003 as a 19-year-old infantryman. Mefloquine was administered once a week and “they made it abundantly clear we would be charged if we weren’t taking it.”

The side-effects were well-known, he says. “My section commander had been in Somalia and Rwanda. He said, ‘Get ready to go loopy, boys!’ You wake up shaking, sweating, terrified, you know: what’s going on? Am I going crazy? But you look around and — oh, everyone’s doing it.”

Berry says he quit taking the pills, without telling his superiors, and the side effects stopped.

Hookey says he wishes he had done the same. “I know guys who didn’t take the drugs because they said, ‘Screw that, man. I don’t know what’s in it.’ Maybe I should have been one of those guys, huh?”

The Canadian Forces base their use of mefloquine on recommendations of the Public Health Agency of Canada, which says the drug is “generally well tolerated” and that severe reactions such as seizures are rare (reported from one in 6,000 to one in 13,000 users). Long-term neuropsychological effects and reports of suicide ideation or suicide have not be confirmed, the agency says.

But, the military’s continuing use of mefloquine “is definitely deviating from the evolving standard of care, or the evolving standard of practices of Western militaries,” Nevin says.
“This will be a cost borne not by the militaries but by the various Veterans Affairs Departments,” he says.

The Canadian military declined to comment to CBC News about its use of mefloquine.
With files from the CBC’s Nancy Wood

Exclusive: The Lariam scandal – MoD ‘ignored decades
of warnings about dangers of suicide drug’
Drug that most GPs are reluctant to prescribe for their patients
and that is banned by U.S. military is putting thousands of British soldiers’ lives at risk
Jonathan Owen
Friday 27 September 2013

Thousands of British soldiers are being put at increased risk of psychosis and suicide because the Ministry of Defence refuses to stop using a controversial anti-malarial drug that has just been banned by the U.S. military, The Independent can reveal.

Mefloquine – better known as Lariam – has long been the subject of warnings over its effects on mental health and is now only used by a minority of people travelling abroad. Amid mounting concerns about the dangers of the drug – which has been linked
with a string of suicides and murders – the U.S. military acted this month to ban its use among special forces. The decision came after it was linked to the massacre of 16 Afghan civilians by a U.S. soldier.

Yet, British soldiers are still being given Lariam – a drug described as a modern-day “Agent Orange” by doctors because of its toxicity.

Speaking to The Independent, a former senior medical officer accused the MoD of ignoring repeated warnings over the dangers of the drug. Lt. Col. Ashley Croft, who served for more than 25 years in the Royal Army Medical Corps and is an expert on malaria, said: “For the past 12 years I was saying this is potentially a dangerous drug – most people can take it without problems but a few people will experience difficulties and of those a small number will become psychotic and because there are other alternatives that are safer and just as effective we should move to them but my words fell on deaf ears.”

Lt. Col. Ashcroft, who retired in April, accused the MoD of being in “denial mode.” He added: “The problem is that it can make people have psychotic thoughts and therefore act in an irrational manner and potentially a manner that is dangerous to themselves or their colleagues, or civilians.”

Doxycycline and malarone are safer drugs, which are as effective in preventing malaria, according to the retired officer. “Really the only people that get it [Lariam] now are the poor old soldiers and they have no choice.”

Mefloquine is typically given to soldiers serving in sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Latin America and South-east Asia. Lt. Co. Croft estimates around 2,500 soldiers a year are given the drug. Lariam was developed by the U.S. Army in the 1970s, and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1989. It became a popular drug for preventing and treating malaria, but recent years have seen it become superceded by newer antimalarial drugs, such as malarone.

While most NHS doctors now recommend that civilians travelling overseas take alternatives to Lariam with fewer side-effects, British service personnel are given little choice about whether to take the drug. This is despite the U.S. military banning Lariam on safety grounds.

An order issued earlier this month by the U.S. Special Forces Command states: “Medical personnel will immediately cease the prescribing and use of mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis.” It adds: “Hallucinations and psychotic behaviour can occur
and continue for months or years after mefloquine use; cases of suicidal ideation and suicide have been reported.”

The decision comes after an order in July from the FDA to force manufacturers to give the drug a black box label, its strongest warning. The FDA warned that some neurological and psychiatric side effects can last for months or years after people stop taking the drug.

Staff Sergeant Robert Bales, the U.S. soldier who killed 16 Afghan civilians in March 2012, had taken Lariam while serving in Iraq.

Dr. Remington Nevin, a former U.S. army doctor and expert on the psychiatric effects of Lariam, who is based at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, said: “As a result of its toxic effects, the drug is quickly becoming the “Agent Orange” of this generation, linked to a growing list of lasting neurological and psychiatric problems including suicide.”

In addition to the mental health risks, physical side effects range from internal bleeding to liver and lung damage. But, there are no signs of the British Army stopping its use of Lariam. An MoD spokesperson said: “All our medical advice is based on the current guidelines set out by Public Health England. Based on its expert advice, the MoD continues to prescribe mefloquine as part of the range of malaria prevention treatments recommended. It is just one of the prevention treatments available and is only prescribed under certain circumstances to ensure the treatment provided is the most effective.”

While ordinary soldiers are routinely given the drug, the MoD ordered that it should not be given to air crew or divers, given the particular risks of such posts. In its latest guidance for commanders, dated 2013, it cites “significant risk of side effects, which could degrade concentration and co-ordination,” and that any such specialist personnel who take it will be unfit for duty for three months.

A spokesman for the Public Health England Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP), said: “Mefloquine is an extremely effective antimalarial and we are not aware of any new data that alter our view of the safety of mefloquine.”

He added: “Whenever new evidence about antimalarials appears the ACMP considers this as part of its continuous process of developing advice.”

Lt. Col. Croft condemned the ACMP for “promoting this drug as ‘safe’” and added: “They shelter behind collegiality, and won’t budge from this position since itwould imply that their earlier judgement on mefloquine was wrong, and if they were to now change their advice then they as individuals could potentially be cited, in personal injury actions brought by mefloquine-damaged travellers.”

Dr. Nevin further  commented: “Public Health England has a responsibility to protect the travelling public from the threat posed by dangerous medicines, and should carefully reconsider its recommendations in light of mefloquine’s neurotoxicity and its association with risk of permanent neurological injury and death.”

He added: “Mefloquine toxicity is also a potentially life-threatening condition that is fully preventable by use of safer daily antimalarials.”

Roche, the company that makes Lariam, warned of the risk of suicide more than a decade ago. And this July, in a letter to doctors in Ireland, Dr Maria Luz Amador, the company’s medical director, warned that the drug “may induce potentially serious neuropsychiatric disorders” and that “hallucinations, psychosis, suicide, suicidal thoughts and self-endangering behaviour have beenreported.”

A statement from Roche said: “All medicines have side effects and we are sorry to hear about those that experience adverse reactions to our medicines.” It continued, the benefits “outweigh the potential risk of the treatment and Roche maintains the position that there is no causal relationship between suicidal tendency, suicide or self-harm and Lariam.”

But it cautioned: “Lariam should not be prescribed for prophylaxis in persons with active depression or with a history of major psychiatric disorders or convulsions.”

Doctors “tend to steer clear of it,” said Dr. Claire Gerarda, the chair of the Royal College of General Practitioners. “I wouldn’t encourage it, because I think it’s got nasty side effects. I can’t remember the last time I prescribed Lariam.”

Lariam: The suicides, murders and incidents of self-harm
The controversial anti-malarial drug Lariam has been linked to a series of military suicides, murders and incidents of self-harm during the past 20 years.

* Staff Sergeant Robert Bales, the U.S. soldier who killed 16 Afghan civilians in 2012, had taken Lariam while serving in Iraq. Although he is not mentioned by name, an “adverse event” report was made to Roche, manufacturers of the drug, on 29th March 2012 from a pharmacist regarding an unnamed Army soldier. “The patient who was a soldier in the U.S. Army developed homicidal behavior and led to Homicide killing 17 Afghanis,” it said. The report, which was passed on to the U..S Food and Drug Administration, claimed the drug had been given “in direct
contradiction to U.S. military rules that Mefloquine should not be given to soldiers who had suffered TBI (Traumatic brain injury) due to its propensity to cross blood brain barriers inciting psychotic, homicidal or suicidal behaviour.”

* Canadian peacekeepers beat, tortured and shot two local teenagers in Somalia in 1993. Major Barry Armstrong, the military commander of the Somalia surgical unit, in a report dated October that year, stated: “I believe there may be an additional, simple explanation for our difficulties in Somalia: Canadian and American troops may have been impaired by the use of mefloquine.”

* In 2000, Lance Corporal Kristian Shelmerdine, the Parachute Regiment, shot himself in the arm while serving in Sierra Leone. He blamed the accident on the drug, claiming to have had bad dreams and woken up to find himself shot, but was found guilty of ‘negligent discharge.’ Two years later, four U.S. soldiers based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina (three of whom had recently returned from Afghanistan, where troops were prescribed Lariam) killed their wives. Two of the soldiers killed themselves.

* In 2004, a U.S. Army reservist shot himself in Iraq – just weeks before he was due to return home. In a U.S. army report which subsequently emerged, an army psychiatrist stated: “If toxicology reveals the presence of mefloquine, SPC Torres’ case should be viewed in light of other suicides suspected to be associated with the drug.”

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New hope for veterans suffering from PTSD

Another resource for veterans suffering from PTSD. This Alliston Workshop in Ontario on Saturday, July 12, 2014 is not government-endorsed, but your local legions are promoting it. For early bird enquiries or appointments call Sandra at (705) 733-8284 or visit her web site at


Posted in Afghanistan vets, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Peacekeepers, caregivers, emotional trauma, federal government, Homecoming Vets, mental illness, physical disability, post traumatic stress disorder, social workers, suicide, veterans' affairs, veterans' assistance programs, VRAB | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment